Landmine Monitor 2001

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

Website: www.undp.org

INTRODUCTION

The indiscriminate laying of landmines has created a long term development problem in many countries across the globe. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has a growing role in supporting Governments of mine affected countries and local communities to address this problem.

The United Nations Policy on Mine Action[1] confirms the need for a fully integrated response to the problems caused by landmines and UXO, incorporating mine awareness and risk reduction education; minefield survey, mapping, marking and clearance; victim assistance, including rehabilitation and reintegration; and advocacy to stigmatize the use of landmines and support a total ban on antipersonnel landmines. The policy outlines the roles and responsibilities of each of the relevant UN Agencies, coordinated by the UN Mine Action Service.

UNDP is responsible “for addressing the socio-economic consequences of landmine contamination and for supporting national/local capacity building to ensure the elimination of the obstacle they pose to the resumption of normal economic activity, reconstruction and development. When applicable, UNDP will have normal responsibility for the development of integrated, sustainable national/local mine action programmes...”

To do this, UNDP helps:

  • Establish policy frameworks, management infrastructures and institutional arrangements in mine affected countries through providing information and technical support, as well as management and training support for national personnel;
  • Arrange training for technical teams, managers and other support staff, to build the national capacity to manage mine action programmes in the future;
  • Set up national data-bases and provide input into management information systems (normally the standard UN Information Management System for Mine Action, or IMSMA) through coordination with national landmine surveys and the identification and marking of dangerous areas, so that there is clear data on the extent of the problem. This survey data provides the basis for setting of priorities for all aspects of Mine Action;
  • Develop tasking systems which take account of humanitarian and development priorities, and address specific needs within mine affected communities.
  • Ensure public education campaigns form a part of overall capacity building in collaboration with UNICEF, so that local communities are empowered to minimize exposure to risk in their everyday life;
  • Support victim rehabilitation projects at the field level, in coordination with UNICEF and WHO, providing rehabilitation and socio-economic reintegration;
  • Empower governments and communities to carry out their own advocacy and resource mobilization efforts to raise support from donor communities, and to assist with the establishment and management of Trust Funds, and the submission of programme information to the UN Mine Action portfolio;

SUPPORT TO COUNTRY PROGRAMMES

UNDP’s role is not to engage in mine clearance itself, but to assist Governments to develop long term capacity to manage, prioritize and coordinate their Mine Action Programme. UNDP, with its network of offices in 132 countries and its multi-sectoral approach to development, is able to provide appropriately targeted support and training for the establishment of national Mine Action Programmes.

UNDP supports mine action capacity building projects in various stages of development in the following countries:

Existing Programmes
Pilot Programmes
Initial Planning
Angola
Eritrea
Albania
Azerbaijan
Ethiopia
 
Bosnia & Herzegovina
Guinea Bissau
 
Cambodia
Lebanon
 
Chad
Thailand
 
Croatia
   
Lao PDR
   
Mozambique
   
Somalia
   
Yemen
   

As at May 2001

The United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS) has been contracted to provide project services for many of these programmes. Further information on the specific achievements of each programme is contained in the relevant country information provided in this report.

UNDP’s Mine Action Team, established in 1998 to provide a small team of specialist staff based at the headquarters in New York, continues to provide direct support to UNDP’s regional bureaux and country offices who, in turn, assist National Governments in dealing with the problems caused by landmine and unexploded ordnance contamination. The team provides advice in areas such as capacity building, technical matters, training, resource mobilization, addressing the socio-economic impact of landmines and advocacy for a fully integrated approach to mine action. The Mine Action Team coordinates with the UN Mine Action Service, other UN partners, the World Bank, non-government organizations and donors, and represents UNDP at international meetings as appropriate.

MANAGEMENT TRAINING

In 1999 UNDP, with financial support from several donors, undertook a study which assessed the global training need for management and supervisory staff and proposed options to address it. In 2000, Cranfield University in the UK developed a senior managers’ training course and sixteen managers from thirteen countries attended the pilot course conducted at Cranfield in August-September 2000. The Course was very successful, both in upgrading the skills of the participants, as well as providing a forum for exchange of experiences between programmes, and the development of a real network between the participants, which has remained following the conclusion of the course. A second central course will be held in August –September 2001, and a number of regional courses are planned. A middle management training course is also under development by Cranfield University, with the first module being piloted in Portuguese, in Maputo, Mozambique in June 2001 with participants from Angola, Guinea Bissau and Mozambique. The remaining three modules will be delivered in October 2001, March and June 2002.

In order to assist national Mine Action Programmes to prioritise their activities, and to provide better information on their impact, UNDP commissioned the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining to conduct a study into the assessment of the socio-economic impact of mine action. The study was conducted through literature research as well as case studies in Kosovo (emergency), Mozambique (transition society) and Laos (development). The study report was released at the Intersessional meetings of the AP Mine Ban treaty, held in Geneva in May 2001. The main lesson drawn from this study is that mine action managers need to understand the principal social and economic features of the mine-affected countries and their communities and identify the specific factors that limit economic growth and bind people in poverty. Mine action that addresses these binding constraints should be accorded priority. An operational handbook will be introduced in June 2001, after field testing in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The World Rehabilitation Fund (WRF) has been engaged to conduct UNDP’s three year project for the socio-economic reintegration of landmine victims. Following field research, and identification of needs in Cambodia, Laos, Lebanon and Mozambique, WRF has initiated partnerships with a number of locally based NGO’s in Cambodia, Lebanon and Mozambique to conduct a number of pilot projects. Examples of these projects are the enhancement of vocational training and job placement through increasing employer involvement, with over 60 landmine survivors and other disabled placed in work in the first 6 months of the scheme, and a project in Lebanon supporting landmine survivors and their families to operate roadside kiosks on major highways. Plans exist to expand this project by providing start up funds on a revolving funds basis, allowing an increasing number of kiosks and other small enterprises to be developed.

In addition to the pilot projects, WRF has developed a “prototype” or template of mechanisms and services which should be in place to support the socio-economic re-integration of landmine victim, which will be presented to the intersessional meetings.

RESOURCE MOBILISATION

UNDP works in close cooperation with the national Mine Action Programmes that it supports to coordinate resource mobilisation for the entire country programme. Although precise figures are not yet available for 2000, in 1999 UNDP contributed approximately US$ 6 million of its core resources for mine action activities, with these seed funds attracting a further US$ 20 million in cost sharing or contributions to UNDP Trust funds. Also in 1999, an additional US$ 50 million was contributed by host governments or directly by donor communities for mine action programmes in these countries. UNDP’s own contributions for 2000 is lower than in 1999, reflecting UNDP’s overall reduction in available core funding. However this has been offset by donor contributions of non-core funding for specific, mine action activities.

PARTNERSHIPS

Through an agreement with UNDP, the United Nations Association of the United States continues to be an active UN partner raising resources for mine clearance through the Adopt-A-Minefield® Campaign (see www.landmines.org). By the end of May 2001, over $3 million had been raised towards mine clearance in Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Croatia, and Mozambique. It is anticipated that the programme will be expanded to cover Vietnam this year. The Adopt-A-Minefield® Campaign expanded this year to include two satellite campaigns in the United Kingdom and Canada.

UNDP and UNMAS are partners with the Survey Action Centre, a consortium of NGOs, managed by the Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation, to perform Level One Impact Surveys as an integrated component of on-going mine action programmes in several countries. Collectively, these partners are involved (either directly, or by providing quality assurance) in surveys currently underway in Chad, Mozambique, Cambodia, and Thailand. The Level One Impact Survey in Yemen (UNMAS/SAC) was completed and handed over to the government in September 2000, and discussions are underway for providing support to Azerbaijan, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia in their ongoing survey work.

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[1] “Mine Action and Effective Coordination: The United Nations Policy” endorsed by the Secretary General in September 1998.